National and international climate mitigation policies often do not consider the real conditions and challenges present at the regional level, resulting in misalignments between (inter) national climate policy goals and local priorities. This holds true especially in Coal and Carbon Intensive Regions (CCIR) that are economically dependent on fossil fuels. Without a proper understanding of social, political and cultural perspectives the implementation of mitigation actions and climate policies can be highly ineffective.


The project aims to respond to 3 main questions:

  1. Why do Coal and Carbon Intensive Regions (CCIR) change their development trajectories and embrace low carbon, clean-energy transformations?
  2. What are the actual effects of such fundamental changes to the livelihoods and the sustainability of regional economies and socio-ecological systems?
  3. How can knowledge from the recent past about processes leading to fundamental changes in these regions be used to identify the most effective tipping interventions enact low-carbon, clean-energy transitions in other regions?

In the project, IBS will carry out:

  • Quantitative study on tipping points in populism and anti-democratic attitudes and its relations to energy transitions and clean energy skepticism
  • Structural analysis of labour market implications of coal transition on employment, unemployment, including long-term unemployment, worker flows, and their distributional aspects.

TIPPING+ is a project conducted by a consortium of 18 institutions, led by Global Climate Forum.


Project's website


Research Gate





This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 under grant agreement No 884565.




persons from IBS