Working time flexibility, personality traits and gender pay gaps

realization time: 07.2018-07.2021

The result of our project will be a multifaceted study of the sources of wage inequalities between women and men. Understanding the linkage between gender wage gap and workplace flexibility is of paramount importance, considering ongoing discussions about the labour market flexibility and the consequences of the increasing popularity of non-standard (flexible) employment. Moreover, investigating gender dimension of the level of use of cognitive skills at work because of personality traits will further add to the discussion. The inclusion of firm-level dimension in our analyses will help to understand how firm-level anti-discriminatory legislation may help to address the issue of gender wage inequality and employment gaps.

We will examine:

  1. Whether or not workplace requirement of workers availability in terms of working time, prevalent in foreign owned firms, drives gender wage gaps up? We will differentiate between working time flexibility offered by worker (i.e. being at employer’s disposal) and offered by employer (i.e. offering the possibility to work part-time).
  2. Whether estimators that do not take into account the multi-level patterns of gender wage gaps tend to be overestimated? Existing estimators treat employee-level, firm-level, sector-level and region-level variables equally. We will broaden the current methodological approaches by constructing a new estimator of adjusted gender wage gap. It will take into account multi-level sources of variance in wages by applying multi-level modelling.
  3. Whether returns to cognitive skills due to personality traits act differently for men and women. If so, then how they affect gender wage gaps.


This project has received funding from the National Science Centre, Poland

(OPUS 14; agreement no. UMO-2017/27/B/HS4/01201).

principal investigator:
Iga Magda
Jan Gromadzki, Marta Palczyńska

Working time flexibility, personality traits and gender pay gap – summing up the project with the National Science Centre
Why are women paid less than men, even if they work in the same place, in the same occupation, and have equal educational attainment? What are the gender norms that define our professional life decisions? These are the issues we have focused on for the last four years.
2023-04-06 What if she earns more? Gender norms, income inequality, and the division of housework.
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Using data from the “Generation and Gender Survey” for Poland, we study the relationship between women’s relative income within the household, as measured by the female share of total household income, and women’s involvement in housework. We find that households in which the woman contributes ...
2021-09-30 Flexibility of working time arrangements and female labor market outcome
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We use data from 2019 EU LFS to study gender and parenthood gaps in flexibility in working time arrangements. We find that overall in Europe, there is no statistically significant gender difference in access to flexible work arrangements. However, women are less likely than men ...
2019-11-06 Trends in occupational segregation by gender in a post-communist country
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The communist states promoted women’s participation in the labour market and encouraged women to enter male-dominated occupations, which should have resulted in relatively low levels of occupational segregation by gender. I show that after the transition to the market economy, the level of occupational segregation ...
2018-12-19 Wage premia for skills: The complementarity of cognitive and non-cognitive skills
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This paper provides evidence on the association between individuals' cognitive abilities, personality traits, and earnings. I find that cognitive skills and certain personality traits are complements. In particular, I find that cognitive skills and emotional stability are complementary, with neurotic individuals having significantly lower returns ...
persons from IBS
Marta Palczyńska
see more
Iga Magda
vice president of the board
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