The result of our project will be a multifaceted study of the sources of wage inequalities between women and men. Understanding the linkage between gender wage gap and workplace flexibility is of paramount importance, considering ongoing discussions about the labour market flexibility and the consequences of the increasing popularity of non-standard (flexible) employment. Moreover, investigating gender dimension of the level of use of cognitive skills at work because of personality traits will further add to the discussion. The inclusion of firm-level dimension in our analyses will help to understand how firm-level anti-discriminatory legislation may help to address the issue of gender wage inequality and employment gaps.


We will examine:

  1. Whether or not workplace requirement of workers availability in terms of working time, prevalent in foreign owned firms, drives gender wage gaps up? We will differentiate between working time flexibility offered by worker (i.e. being at employer’s disposal) and offered by employer (i.e. offering the possibility to work part-time).
  2. Whether estimators that do not take into account the multi-level patterns of gender wage gaps tend to be overestimated? Existing estimators treat employee-level, firm-level, sector-level and region-level variables equally. We will broaden the current methodological approaches by constructing a new estimator of adjusted gender wage gap. It will take into account multi-level sources of variance in wages by applying multi-level modelling.
  3. Whether returns to cognitive skills due to personality traits act differently for men and women. If so, then how they affect gender wage gaps.



This project has received funding from the National Science Centre, Poland

(OPUS 14; agreement no. UMO-2017/27/B/HS4/01201).




principal investigator: Iga Magda

analysts: Jan Gromadzki, Marta Palczyńska

contact :

persons from IBS