The shift away from manual and routine cognitive work, and towards non-routine cognitive work is a key feature of labor markets. There is no evidence, however, if the relative importance of various tasks differs between workers performing seemingly similar jobs in different countries. We develop worker-level measures of task content of jobs – non-routine cognitive analytical and personal, routine cognitive and manual – which allow country-specific measurement in 42 countries that are covered by PIAAC, STEP and CULS surveys. We find substantial cross-country differences in the content of work, also within occupations. Differences in technology endowments and in the supply of skills explain most of the cross-country differences in the task content of jobs, especially among workers in high- and middle- skilled occupations, while off-shoring contributes the most to differences between workers in low-skilled and offshorable occupations.