The article was published as a chapter in Energy Poverty and Vulnerability (2017).


The aim of this paper is to explain the regional variation of fuel poverty in Poland. The significant spatial variation of fuel poverty stems from differences in the buildings’ characteristics, income and household composition as well as the diverse advancement of urbanisation processes. The variance analysis permit the conclusion that all these factors influence both energy affordability (LIHC) and thermal comfort (subjective) dimension of fuel poverty. Energy affordability depends mainly on household’s income, whereas lack of thermal comfort is mainly due to low energy efficiency of a building. Even after factoring out the influence of these three factors there still remains a significant unexplained regional variation of lack of thermal comfort. We show that this unexplained variation is linked with the regional disparities of prices and outdoor temperatures.

keywords: fuel poverty, LIHC, thermal comfort, energy affordability, regional variation, degrees of urbanisation

JEL codes: , ,

publication year: 2016

language : Polish, English

thematic categories :

publishing series : IBS Working Paper

publication number : 09/2016

ISSN : 2451-4373

additional information: We would like to thank Piotr Lewandowski for his many helpful suggestions during the research process. We would also like to thank participants of 3rd ESPAnet Poland Conference for their insightful comments. The publication was developed by a grant funded by the European Climate Foundation. Apply the usual disclaimers. All errors are our own.

Projects related to this publication:

Energy Poverty

Katarzyna Sałach

University of Warsaw, Faculty of Economic Sciences

Maciej Lis

Institute for Structural Research (IBS)

Agata Miazga

Institute for Structural Research (IBS)

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