The aim of this paper is to present a statistical measure of energy poverty in Poland. This is the first research for Poland which is strictly based on the methodology applied in the United Kingdom − the only country with a statutory definition of energy poverty. We calculate three measures: absolute – “10% of income”, modified absolute – “13% of income” and relative − Low Income High Costs (LIHC). The results are compared with a subjective energy situation assessment made by households. Moreover, we answer the question to what extent energy poverty coincides with income poverty. After examining the different variants of the definition, we recommend using the relative LIHC definition in Poland. According to this measure, 17% of the Polish population (6.44 million people) are exposed to energy poverty, especially occupants of detached houses, inhabitants of rural areas, households living on non-earned sources, single parents and married couples with at least 2 children.