4.6 million people in Poland live in energy poverty. In order to significantly reduce the scale of this problem, more effective and better addressed public policy instruments are needed. We propose three new instruments. First, targeted fuel allowance, aimed at alleviating the symptoms of energy poverty. Second, advisory services and energy saving improvements. Third, thermal retrofit coupled with professional energy counselling. The latter two instruments are meant to eliminate the causes of energy poverty. Thermal retrofit is the most expensive but the most effective tool. Developing a mechanism for practical identification of energy poor households is a major challenge. It is to be tackled by local governments, especially social assistance centres.