The paper studies the factors that shape party issue competition on climate change and environmentalism. It covers the quantitative study on political parties’ positions in 22 European countries during electoral campaigns between 1990 and 2016, as well as two case studies: Polish electoral campaign in 2011 and German electoral campaign in 2013. The paper concludes that more favourable public opinion towards environment, lower socio-economic inequality and weaker trade unions are associated with high party competition on climate change and environmentalism.
I thank Piotr Lewandowski, Marta Palczyńska and Aleksander Szpor for their insightful comments. The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union Horizon2020 under Grant Agreement No 642260. The usual disclaimers apply. All errors are ours.